The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition (2024)

Go to Notes and Bibliography: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding in-text citation. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style. For examples of the same citations using the notes and bibliography system, follow the Notes and Bibliography link above.

Book

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Grazer, Brian, and Charles Fishman. 2015. A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

In-text citations

(Grazer and Fishman 2015, 12)

(Smith 2016, 315–16)

For more examples, see 15.40–45 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Chapter or other part of an edited book

In the reference list, include the page range for the chapter or part. In the text, cite specific pages.

Reference list entry

Thoreau, Henry David. 2016. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-text citation

(Thoreau 2016, 177–78)

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.

Reference list entry

D’Agata, John, ed. 2016. The Making of the American Essay. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press.

In-text citation

(D’Agata 2016, 177–78)

For more details, see 15.36 and 15.42 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Translated book

Reference list entry

Lahiri, Jhumpa. 2016.In Other Words. Translated by Ann Goldstein. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

In-text citation

(Lahiri 2016, 146)

E-book

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle.

Borel, Brooke. 2016. The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ProQuest Ebrary.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. 1987. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders/.

Melville, Herman. 1851. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale. New York: Harper & Brothers. http://mel.hofstra.edu/moby-dick-the-whale-proofs.html.

In-text citations

(Austen 2007, chap. 3)

(Borel 2016, 92)

(Kurland and Lerner 1987, chap. 10, doc. 19)

(Melville 1851, 627)

Journal article

In the reference list, include the page range for the whole article. In the text, cite specific page numbers. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database in the reference list entry. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. 2017. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

LaSalle, Peter. 2017. “Conundrum: A Story about Reading.” New England Review 38 (1): 95–109. Project MUSE.

Satterfield, Susan. 2016. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April): 165–76.

In-text citations

(Keng, Lin, and Orazem 2017, 9–10)

(LaSalle 2017, 95)

(Satterfield 2016, 170)

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the reference list; in the text, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the reference list, followed by et al.

Reference list entry

Bay, Rachael A., Noah Rose, Rowan Barrett, Louis Bernatchez, Cameron K. Ghalambor, Jesse R. Lasky, Rachel B. Brem, Stephen R. Palumbi, and Peter Ralph. 2017. “Predicting Responses to Contemporary Environmental Change Using Evolutionary Response Architectures.” American Naturalist 189, no. 5 (May): 463–73. https://doi.org/10.1086/691233.

In-text citation

(Bay et al. 2017, 465)

For more examples, see 15.46–49 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. In the reference list, it can be helpful to repeat the year with sources that are cited also by month and day. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in the text but are omitted from a reference list entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

Pai, Tanya. 2017. “The Squishy, Sugary History of Peeps.” Vox, April 11, 2017. http://www.vox.com/culture/2017/4/11/15209084/peeps-easter.

Pegoraro, Rob. 2007. “Apple’s iPhone Is Sleek, Smart and Simple.” Washington Post, July 5, 2007. LexisNexis Academic.

In-text citation

(Manjoo 2017)

(Mead 2017, 43)

(Pai 2017)

(Pegoraro 2007)

Readers’ comments are cited in the text but omitted from a reference list.

In-text citation

(Eduardo B [Los Angeles], March 9, 2017, comment on Manjoo 2017)

For more examples, see 15.49 (newspapers and magazines) and 15.51 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Book review

Reference list entry

Kakutani, Michiko. 2016. “Friendship Takes a Path That Diverges.” Review of Swing Time, by Zadie Smith. New York Times, November 7, 2016.

In-text citation

(Kakutani 2016)

Interview

Reference list entry

Stamper, Kory. 2017. “From ‘F-Bomb’ to ‘Photobomb,’ How the Dictionary Keeps Up with English.” Interview by Terry Gross. Fresh Air, NPR, April 19, 2017. Audio, 35:25. http://www.npr.org/2017/04/19/524618639/from-f-bomb-to-photobomb-how-the-dictionary-keeps-up-with-english.

In-text citation

(Stamper 2017)

Thesis or dissertation

Reference list entry

Rutz, Cynthia Lillian. 2013. “King Lear and Its Folktale Analogues.” PhD diss., University of Chicago.

In-text citation

(Rutz 2013, 99–100)

Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed...”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, use n.d. (for “no date”) in place of the year and include an access date.

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Bouman, Katie. 2016. “How to Take a Picture of a Black Hole.” Filmed November 2016 at TEDxBeaconStreet, Brookline, MA. Video, 12:51. https://www.ted.com/talks/katie_bouman_what_does_a_black_hole_look_like.

Google. 2017. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 17, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017. https://www.yale.edu/about-yale/yale-facts.

In-text citations

(Bouman 2016)

(Google 2017)

(Yale University, n.d.)

For more examples, see 15.50–52 in The Chicago Manual of Style. For multimedia, including live performances, see 15.57.

Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). If a more formal citation is needed, a reference list entry may be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

Text

Conan O’Brien’s tweet was characteristically deadpan: “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets” (@ConanOBrien, April 22, 2015).

Reference list entries (in alphabetical order)

Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/ChicagoManual/posts/10152906193679151.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

In-text citations

(Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

(Souza 2016)

(Michele Truty, April 17, 2015, 1:09 p.m., comment on Chicago Manual of Style 2015)

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.

In-text citation

(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)

The Chicago Manual of Style, 17th Edition (2024)

FAQs

What is the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition? ›

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) covers a variety of topics from manuscript preparation and publication to grammar, usage, and documentation, and as such, it has been lovingly dubbed the “editor's bible.”

What's the difference between Chicago 16th and 17th? ›

In a departure from the 16th edition, the formatting for titles of websites can now be treated in various ways. What dictates the treatment is whether the website also has a print counterpart, such as newspaper websites. If the site has one, the title is in italics. If it does not, then it is not stylized.

Is the Chicago Manual of Style free online? ›

Sometimes referred to by its acronym, CMOS (pronounced like “sea moss”), The Chicago Manual of Style is available both in print and online, for an annual subscription fee. A free Chicago style Q&A and other resources are also available to the public on the CMOS website.

How to cite a journal in Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition? ›

Author's Last Name, First Name. "Title of Article." Name of Journal Volume Number, no. Issue Number (Date of Publication): First Page Number of Article-Last Page Number of Article. https://doi.org/DOI Number or Name of Database.

What is a Chicago manual of style example? ›

Chicago book citation

Author first name last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: publisher, year), page number(s). Albert Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1923), 44–45. Einstein, The Meaning of Relativity, 89.

Is Chicago style the same as MLA? ›

Chicago Style Bibliographies

For published, print sources, instructions for listing sources in a Chicago Bibliography are the same as for an MLA Works Cited page. For unpublished or electronic sources, listings in a Chicago Bibliography are slightly different than for an MLA Works Cited.

What is the difference between APA and Chicago style? ›

Most of the differences between Chicago (Turabian) and APA Styles involve in-text citations. Both styles include the last name of the author and a page number in parentheses for the in-text citation. APA Style also includes the year of publication of the source, but Chicago (Turabian) Style does not.

How much does CMOS cost? ›

Through our experience working with many experienced executive-level marketers, we've found that the average hourly rate of a fractional CMO is typically between $200-375 an hour. Some fractional CMO providers charge ad hoc by the hour, and others work on a retainer for a dedicated number of hours per week/month.

How much does a subscription to Chicago Manual of Style cost? ›

Small-Group Subscriptions
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How do you quote in Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition? ›

Quotations
  • Single-space the quotation (this will visually contrast with the double-spacing of the rest of your paper);
  • Indent each line of the quotation ½ inch from the left margin;
  • Create an extra line of space immediately before and after the quotation;
  • Add the footnote at the end of the quote.

How to properly cite Chicago style? ›

The Chicago style, when referring to a source of information within the text of a document, in its simplest form, gives a short citation consisting of the name of the author (or authors) and the date of publication. The short references within the text are given wholly or partly in round brackets.

Do footnotes have to be in order? ›

Footnotes should be numbered consecutively in the order they appear throughout your paper. Each note should have a unique number; don't use the same number again even if you cite the same source repeatedly.

What is the difference between APA and Chicago Manual of Style? ›

Most of the differences between Chicago (Turabian) and APA Styles involve in-text citations. Both styles include the last name of the author and a page number in parentheses for the in-text citation. APA Style also includes the year of publication of the source, but Chicago (Turabian) Style does not.

Is Chicago 17th edition the same as turabian? ›

Chicago and Turabian are basically the same thing, but Chicago is used by academics and researchers, while Turabian is used by students for research papers that will not be published.

What is the current version of the Chicago Manual of Style? ›

The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated as CMOS, TCM, or CMS, or sometimes as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 17 editions (the most recent in 2017) have prescribed writing and citation styles widely used in publishing.

Is there a Chicago Manual of Style 18th edition? ›

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS), one of the most-used style guides in publishing, is headed for an update to its 18th edition later this year and editors are eager to know what changes it will contain.

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